Surgery

GallBladder stone

Overview – 1. Obstruction of extra hepatic biliary apparatus and gastrointestinal tract 2. Compression of common hepatic duct and common bile duct 3. Fistula between gallbladder and it’s surrounding structures 1. Obstruction – A. Extra hepatic biliary apparatus (EHBA) – 1. Cystic duct (CD) Due to obstruction of cystic duct by gallstone it causes acute …

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Intracranial hemorrhage

Overview – 1. SCALP layer’s 2. Meninges 3. Extra cranial or SCALP haemorrhage 4. Intra cranial hemorrhage 5. Cause Download here Layers from outside to inside – 1. Skin 2. Connective tissue 3. Aponeurosis or epicranial aponeurosis or galea aponeurotica 4. Loose connective tissue / Sub aponeurotic space 5. Pericardium / Outer periosteum 6. Outer …

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SubarachnoId hemorrhage

Overview – 1. Subarachnoid space 2. Cause 3. Clinical features 4. Diagnosis ● Subarachnoid space – It is present between arachnoid and piamater. ● Circle of willis (COW) and CSF both are present in subarachnoid space (Inter peduncular cistern) NOTE – Inter peduncular cistern is a subarachnoid space and it contain circle of willis. ● …

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GI bleeding

Overview- 1. Epistaxis 2. Hemoptysis 3. Hematemesis 4. Hematochezia 5. Melena6. Hematouria Blood from Nose (Epistaxis) It is also called Epistaxis. Some important questions about nose bleeding. Question 1. Epistaxis is due to the rupture of Kiesselbach’s plexus which is present at little’s area of anterior inferior part of the nasal septum. Question 2. Four …

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Thyroid gland

Overview- 1. Dyspnea 2. Dysphonia 3. Dysphagia 4. Tracheal Deviation 5. Retrosternal goiter 6. Pemberton’s Sign Thyroid gland present in neck region and it have two lobe (Right and left) and both lobe are connect with isthmus. Thyroid gland present in front of the tracha and it secret three hormone 1. Thyroxine or tetra iodo …

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