In this article we covered-
Branches of External carotid artery (ECA)
• this is the branch of the common carotid artery (Common carotid artery divide into two part; external and internal carotid artery- see aorta)
• ECA gives 8 branches and we study these 8 branches into four-part; Anterior, posterior, medial, and terminal branches.
(Mnemonic- AIPMT); In this Mnemonic (AIPMT); remove ‘I’ and the remaining four alphabets (A PMT) are the branches of ECA.
1. Anterior branches of the external carotid artery (ECA)
• Facial artery (also called anesthetist’s artery): Supply to the face.
• Lingual artery- Supply to the tongue.
• Superior thyroid artery- Supply to the thyroid gland.
2. Posterior branches of the external carotid artery (ECA)
• Posterior auricular artery- Supply to the SCALP.
• Occipital artery- Supply to the SCALP.
3. Medial branches of the external carotid artery (ECA)
• Ascending pharyngeal artery- Supply to the pharynx and palatine tonsil.
4. Terminal branches of the external carotid artery (ECA)
• Superficial temporal artery (not superior temporal)- Supply to the SCALP.
• Maxillary artery (Divide into three-part by the lateral head of lateral pterygoid muscle)
A. 1st Part (Mandibular) of the maxillary artery-
M 1. Middle meningeal artery
A 2. Accessory meningeal artery
I 3. Inferior alveolar artery
D 4. Deep auricular artery
A 5. Anterior tympani artery
B. 2nd Part (Pterygoid) of the maxillary artery-
■ All branches of the 2nd part of the maxillary artery and all branches of the anterior division of the trigeminal nerve (Cranial nerve) have the same name.
1. Masseteric artery
2. Deep temporal artery- (It is two in number anterior and posterior deep temporal artery)
3. Pterygoid artery
4. Buccal artery
C. 3rd Part (Pterygopalatine) of the maxillary artery-
(Mnemonic– PGI PAS)
P 1. Posterior superior alveolar artery- Transmit through the alveolar canal (Present in the body of maxilla bone)
G 2. Greater palatine artery- Transmit through the greater palatine canal
I 3. Infraorbital artery- Transmit through the infraorbital fissure
P 4. Pharyngeal branch
A 5. Artery of the alveolar canal- Transmit through the pterygoid canal
S 6. Sphenopalatine artery (Terminal branch of )- Transmit through the sphenopalatine foramen
■ All branches of 2nd part of the maxillary artery and all branches of the anterior division of the trigeminal nerve have the same name
• Branche’s from the Anterior Division of mandibular nerve – Total four branches (Three motor and one sensory branch)
A. Masseteric nerve (Motor branch; due to supply Masseteric muscle)
(Masseteric muscle – Develop from 1st pharyngeal arch)
B. Deep temporal nerve (Motor branch; due to supply Temporalis muscle)
(Temporalis muscle- develop from 1st pharyngeal arch)
C. Nerve to lateral pterygoid (Motor branch; due to supply to the lateral pterygoid muscle)
(Lateral pterygoid muscle- develop from 1st pharyngeal arch)
D. Buccal nerve (Sensory branch; due to supply to the skin of cheek)