I am Pawan nagar from TCML Team. In this article we will try to understand, How can we easily understand the femur bones (Side determination, external features, and attachment) and remember them for a long time.
Here we are give an superficial idea to study femur bone and if you want to study femur bone in detail visit our youtube channel The Charsi of Medical Literature / TCML and make bones chart from TCML videos.
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Here we covered femur bone into three points, that are given below-
1. Side determination
2. External features
1. Side determination –
We’ll cover the side determination of the femur bone in three points.
1. Upper and Lower End-
● Head of femur (Rounded / sphere) are present on upper end of femur.
2. Lateral and Medial side-
● Head of femur present on medial side.
● Adductor tubercle present on medial condyle.
3. Anterior and Posterior side-
● Lesser Trochanter (Not Tubercle) present on posterior side.
● Intercondylar fossa or notch present on posterior side of femur bone.
2. External Features –
We’ll cover the external features of the femur bone in three points.
A. Upper End-
● Articulate with the acetabulum cavity of hip bone and formed hip joint (Ball and socket joint)
● more then half (>1/2) of sphere
● covered with Hyaline Cartilage except fovea capitis (Round ligament / Ligament of head of femur attach on it)
● Connect head and shaft of the the femur.
● It have two border: Upper and Lower
Horizontal and concave.
Meet the femur shaft near greater trochanter.
Straight and oblique.
Meet the femur shaft near lesser trochanter.
● It two surface: Anterior and Posterior
Meet the shaft at inter trochanteric line.
Entire intra capsular (also read in hip joint ligaments)
Meet the shaft at inter trochanteric crest.
>1/2 (Medial) intra capsular (also read in hip joint ligaments)
3. Intertrochanteric line-
● Location: Anterior side present. (Junction of anterior surface of neck and shaft of femur)
● Extend: Greater trochanter (Anterosuperior angle) – Front of lesser trochanter – Continue below with spiral line
Upper end: VL (Vastus Lateralis)
Lower end: VM (Vastus Medialis)
4. Intertrochanteric crest-
● Location: Posterior side present. (Junction of posterior surface of neck and shaft of femur)
● Extend: Greater trochanter (Posterosuperior angle) – Lesser trochanter
Near its middle Quadrate Tubercle present and Ouadratus femoris muscle attached on it.
5. Greater Trochanter-
● Location: Present on neck and shaft junction (upper part)
● One Border- Upper Border- Posterior part called Apex: Piriformis muscle attached on it.
● Three Surface: Anterior, Medial, and Lateral surface
Anterior surface: Lateral part- Gluteus minimus
Medial surface: Divide into two part: Above & Below
Above: Superior gemellus, Obturator internus, and Inferior gemellus.
Below: Obturator externus
Lateral surface- Gluteus medius muscle attach on it.
6. Lesser Trochanter-
● Location: Present on posterior side of upper end of femur.
● directed medially
● This is a conical shape projection, and it have apex and base.
Apex: Posas major muscle attached on it.
Base: iliacus muscle attach on it.
(Psoas major and iliacus muscle form floor of femoral triangle)
● Line from lesser trochanter (Base) to Linea aspera (Upper end): Pectineus muscle attached on it.
We study femur shaft into below three points-
1. Upper 1/3
2. Middle 1/3
3. Lower 1/3
1. Upper 1/3: It have four border and four surface.
● Four border-
Lateral part of gluteal tuberosity
● Four surface-
2. Middle 1/3: It have four border and four surface.
● Three Border-
Posterior border or linea aspera: Divide into two lip: Lateral and medial lip.
● Three Surface-
3. Lower 1/3: It have four border and four surface.
● Four border-
Lateral supra condylar ridge
Medial supra Condylar ridge
● Four surface-
Posterior (Popliteal Surface)
Attachment: (See Figure)
Linea aspera / posterior border of middle 1/3 attachment are given below (Medial to lateral)
VM, AL, AB, AM, BF (SH), VL
C. Lower End-
It have two condyle- Lateral and medial condyle
Anterior- Patellar surface
Inferior- Tibial surface
Posterior- Intercondylar fossa / notch
On each side (Lateral and medial)- Epicondyle
3. Attachment –
See point 2 (External features)
● Upper End-
1. Gluteus maximus
2. Gluteus minimum
3. Gluteus medius
4. Obturator externus
5. Obturator internus
6. Superior gemellus
7. Inferior gemellus
9. Psoas major
1. VM (Vastus medialis)
2. VL (Vastus lateralis)
3. VI (Vastus Intermedius)
4. AL (Adductor longus)
5. AB (Adductor brevis)
6. AM (Adductor magnus)
7. SH of BF (Short head of biceps femoris)
8. AG (Articular genu)
● Lower end-
1. Gastrocnemius (Lateral and Medial Head)