Ligaments of Hip Joint-
Overview: In this article we covered.
1. Ligament of head of the femur
2. Acetabular labrum
3. Transverse acetabular ligament
4. Capsular ligament or fibrous capsule of the hip joint
5. iliofemoral ligament or Ligament of Bigelow
6. Ischio femoral ligament
7. Pubofemoral ligament
You can easily understand all ligament of hip Joint into 3 part, that is given below.
NOTE: We are studying all the ligaments of the hip joint, from the inside out of the joint here.
A. Intracapsular ligament of the hip joint-
As the name itself is clear, all of this ligament is present inside the fibrous capsule of the hip joint.
1. Ligament of head of the femur–
• another name– Round ligament or ligament teres.
• Shape– Triangular in shape (have apex and base)
a. Apex: attach to the fovea capitis (present on the head of femur bone).
b. Base: attach to the transverse ligament and acetabular notch (present on the hip bone).
• Arteries (Obturator artery and MCFA*) are transmitted through this ligament and supply to the acetabulum and femur head.
*MCFA- Medial Circumflex Femoral Artery.
(Branch of Profunda or deep femoral artery)
2. Acetabular labrum-
• This is a rim-like structure and is made up of fibrocartilage.
attached to acetabular margin (present on the hip bone)
a. Due to acetabular labrum acetabulum depth increase.
b. Due to the acetabular labrum mouth of the acetabulum are narrow and as a result, the head of the femur is held tightly into the acetabulum of the hip bone.
3. Transverse acetabular ligament-
• This is part of acetabular labrum.
• It bridge the acetabular notch as a result of acetabular notch convert into a foramen.
• Acetabular nerves and vessels are present in the acetabular foramen.
B. Capsular ligament or fibrous capsule of the hip joint-
• On hip bone- attached to the outer part of the acetabular labrum, beyond the acetabular margin, and transverse acetabular ligament.
• On femur bone– attached to the intertrochanteric line (present on the anterior side) and intertrochanteric crest (present on posterior side)
2. Capsule is made up of two types of fibres-
• Outer fibre-
a. Longitudinal present
b. Best develop on anterosuperiorly side.
c. Reflect along the neck of the femur called Retinacula.
(Blood vessels are present in Retinacula and these blood vessels supply to the head and neck of the femur bone)
• Inner fibre-
a. Circular present
b. Form collar around the femur neck called Zona orbicularis.
• Anterosuperiorly part- Thick and firmly attached.
• Posteroinferior part- Thin and loosely attached.
4. Synovial Membrane-
• Present inside the fibrous capsule of the hip joint.
• Lined inner surface of a fibrous capsule, femur neck, acetabular labrum (both surface), transverse acetabular ligament, acetabular fossa, and the round ligament of head of the femur.
C. Extra-capsular ligament of the hip joint-
As the name itself is clear, all of these ligaments are present outside the fibrous capsule of the hip joint.
1. iliofemoral ligament-
• Strongest ligament of the body.
• Other names- Ligament of Bigelow.
• Location- Present anteriorly so prevent trunk falling backwards.
• Shape- Inverted ‘Y’ shape or triangular in shape (have apex and base).
a. Apex: attach to the lower half of ASIS (Anterior Superior iliac Spine), present on the hip bone.
b. Base: attach to the intertrochanteric line of the femur (present on the anterior side of the femur bone).
2. Ischio femoral ligament-
• Location- Present posterior side of the hip joint. and support to the joint posteriorly.
• Fibers are weak and twisted.
3. Pubofemoral ligament-
• Location- It is present inferomedial side of the joint and supports the joint.
• Shape- Triangular in shape (have apex and base)
a. Apex (Inferior side present)- merge with the lower band of iliofemoral ligament and fibrous capsule (anteroinferior part) of the hip joint.
b. Base (Superior side present)- attach to the iliopubic eminence, obturator crest, and obturator membrane.