Trigeminal Nerve

1. Ophthalmic Division of Trigeminal Nerve- (Sensory)

• Frontal branch

A. Supra Trochlear (Medial side)- Supply to the skin of the upper eyelid
B. Supra Orbital (Lateral side) – Supply to the skin of upper eyelid and forehead

• Nasociliary

A. Infra Trochlear
B. Anterior Ethmoidal- Supply to the nose.
C. Posterior Ethmoidal- Supply to the nose.
D. Long Ciliary- Supply to the eyeball.
E. Ganglion branch- to the Ciliary Ganglion

• Lacrimal branch- Supply to the lacrimal gland.

2. Maxillary Division of Trigeminal Nerve- (Motor)

• Branch in middle cranial fossa-

Meningeal Branch

• Branche in pterygopalatine fossa-

A. Ganglion branch- to the Pterygopalatine ganglion
B. Zygomatic branch
1. Zygomatico temporal
2. Zygomatico facial
C. Posterior superior alveolar- Supply to the upper jaw.

• Branch in infraorbital canal ( Infra Orbital Nerve)
A. Middle Superior Alveolar Nerve- Supply to the upper jaw.
B. Anterior Superior Alveolar Nerve- Supply to the upper jaw.

• Branche’s on the face
A. Palpebral- Supply to the lower eyelid.
B. Labial- Supply to the upper lip.
C. Nasal- Supply to the nose

3. Mandibular Division of Trigeminal Nerve- (Sensory and Motor)
[This is the Nerve of 1st Pharyngeal Arch and supplies all muscles that are developed from the 1st pharyngeal arch]

• Branches from the trunk-
A. Branch to meninges (Nervous spinosus)- Sensory branch
B. Nerve to medial pterygoid muscle- Motor branch and supplies to the three muscles (Tensor veli palatini, Tensor tympani, Medial pterygoid muscle) and these three muscle develops from 1st pharyngeal arch.

• Branche’s from the Anterior Division- Total four branches (Three motor and one sensory branch)

A. Masseteric nerve (Motor branch; due to supply Masseteric muscle)

(Masseteric muscle – Develop from 1st pharyngeal arch)

B. Deep temporal nerve (Motor branch; due to supply Temporalis muscle)

(Temporalis muscle- develop from 1st pharyngeal arch)

C. Nerve to lateral pterygoid (Motor branch; due to supply to the lateral pterygoid muscle)

(Lateral pterygoid muscle- develop from 1st pharyngeal arch)

D. Buccal nerve (Sensory branch; due to supply to the skin of cheek)

■ All branches of the anterior division of the trigeminal nerve and all branches of the 2nd part of the maxillary artery have the same name.

Maxillary artery branches (2nd part)

1. Masseteric artery
2. Deep temporal artery (Anterior and posterior)
3. Pterygoid artery
4. Buccal artery

• Branche’s from the posterior division-

A. Auriculotemporal nerve-
1. Auricular nerve- supply to the ear.
2. Superficial temporal nerve
3. Articular branch to the TMJ (Temporomandibular Joint)
4. To the Otic ganglion

B. Lingual nerve-
1. Supply to the tongue- General sensation from anterior 2/3 of the tongue.
2. To the Submandibular ganglion

C. Inferior alveolar nerve-
1. Nerve to the mylohyoid muscle
• Supply to the mylohyoid muscle (develop from 1st pharyngeal arch)
• Supply to the anterior belly of digastric muscle (develop from 1st pharyngeal arch)
2. Dental branches- Supply to the lower teeth (Premolar and molar)
3. Mental branches- Supply to the skin of chin.
4. Incisive branches- Supply to the lower teeth (incisor and canine)

■ All muscles that develop from 1st pharyngeal arch are supplied by the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve or mandibular nerve.

1. Muscle of mastication-
1. Masseteric muscle- Supply by anterior division
2. Temporalis muscle- Supply by anterior division
3. Medial pterygoid muscle- Supply by the trunk
4. Lateral pterygoid muscle- Supply by anterior division

2. Mylohyoid muscle- Supply by posterior division (Inferior alveolar nerve)

3. Diagastric Muscle (Anterior Belly)- Supply by posterior division (Inferior alveolar nerve)

4. Tensor tympani muscle- Supply by a trunk

5. Tensor palati or Tensor veli palatini- Supply by a trunk

📌 Bell’s palsy